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Ruling 1657

In some cases – other than those that were indicated previously – only qaḍāʾ is obligatory on a person and kaffārah is not obligatory:

  1. one is junub on a night of the month of Ramadan and – as per the details mentioned in Ruling 1601 – he does not wake up from the second sleep until the time of ṣubḥprayers;

  2. one does not do anything that invalidates a fast but does not make the intention to fast, or pretends to fast, or intends not to fast; and the same applies if he intends to do something that invalidates a fast, as per the details explained in Ruling 1549;

  3. in the month of Ramadan, one forgets to perform ghuslof janābahand in the state of janābah he fasts one day or several days;

  4. in the month of Ramadan, one does not investigate whether or not the time for ṣubḥ prayers has set in and does something that invalidates a fast, and afterwards it becomes known that the time of ṣubḥ prayers had set in;
  5. someone says the time of ṣubḥ prayers has not set in, and based on his statement one does something that invalidates a fast, and afterwards it becomes known that the time of ṣubḥ prayers had set in;
  6. someone says it is ṣubḥ but a fasting person does not have certainty about the validity of the person’s statement, or he thinks that the person who made the statement is joking, and he does not investigate, and he does something that invalidates a fast, and afterwards it becomes known that it really was ṣubḥ;

  7. one breaks his fast based on the statement of someone whose statement is legally (sharʿan) authoritative for him [for example, someone whose word he trusts] who tells him it is maghrib– or he mistakenly believes that his report is authoritative – and afterwards it becomes known that it was not maghrib;

  8. one is certain or confident that it is maghrib and breaks his fast, and afterwards it becomes known that it was not maghrib. However, if he breaks his fast because the weather was cloudy that day and suchlike, and he supposed it had become maghrib, and afterwards it becomes known that it was not maghrib, then the obligation of qaḍāʾ in this instance is based on obligatory precaution;

  9. someone who gargles – i.e. he circulates water in his mouth – due to thirst and unintentionally swallows the water. However, if the person forgets that he is fasting and swallows the water, or, he gargles for reasons other than thirst – as in cases when gargling is recommended, such as in wuḍūʾ – and he unintentionally swallows the water, then there is no obligation on him to keep a qaḍāʾ fast;

  10. someone who breaks his fast due to compulsion, necessity, or taqiyyah;9 and if he breaks his fast due to compulsion or taqiyyah, then qaḍāʾ is due only if he was required to eat, drink, or have sexual intercourse. The same applies, based on obligatory precaution, if he was required to break his fast by means other than eating, drinking, or having sexual intercourse.

9 Taqiyyah refers to the discretionary concealment of one’s beliefs under duress.