The World Federation Islamic Laws
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4- The rules on pilgrimage by proxy (Niyabah)

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  • 109

    It is necessary that the principal must be Muslim. Thus, acting as agent for an infidel is invalid, even if the infidel has died while still enjoying some wealth. If his heir is a Muslim, it is not …

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  • 125

    If a person is appointed an agent to perform Hajj-ut-Tamatu’ in good time but, per chance, the time became short and the agent changed Hajj-ut-Tamatu’ into Hajj-ul-Ifraad, and after completing it performs the Umrat-ul-Mufradah, the obligation of the …

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  • 110

    There is no objection to appointing an agent to perform an optional pilgrimage for a living person, whether gratuitously or for reward. The same goes for an obligatory pilgrimage for a person who is unable to do it …

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  • 126

    If the pilgrimage is optional, there is no objection to the agent performing it on behalf of a number of people. With regard to obligatory pilgrimages, an agent can perform it on behalf of one person only, except …

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  • 111

    It is necessary for the validity of the agency that the intent must be to perform pilgrimage for the principal, who should be known through any means of identification. Although it is not necessary that his name be …

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  • 127

    If the pilgrimage is optional, there is no objection to a number of people becoming agents in one year on behalf of one person, living or dead, gratuitously or for reward. The same rule applies to obligatory pilgrimages, …

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  • 112

    Just as performing an obligatory pilgrimage is valid, whether it is gratuitous or by permission, so is it valid if it is for reward or in fulfilment of a condition of contract.

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  • 128

    Tawaf is a recommended act of worship in itself. It is, therefore, permissible to appoint an agent to do it on behalf of a deceased and also a living person who is away from Makkah, or in it, …

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  • 113

    Apparently (adh’dhahir), the agent must act as if the pilgrimage is for himself with regard to the rules on incapacity, i.e. as though they would have applied to him in his own pilgrimage. Also, the rules relating to …

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  • 129

    There is no objection to an agent, on completion of the pilgrimage for which he was appointed, performing an Umrat-ul-Mufradah for himself or another person. Likewise, he can then make tawaf for himself or another person.

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