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33. Eating and Drinking

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  • Ruling 2641

    It is unlawful (ḥarām) to eat all birds of prey that have talons, such as falcons, eagles, hawks, and vultures. Similarly, all types of crows, even choughs, are unlawful to eat, based on obligatory precaution (al‐iḥtiyāṭ al‐wājib). Also, …

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  • Ruling 2642

    If something [from an animal’s body] that contains life is separated from the animal – for example, a person cuts off the tail fat or some flesh from a living sheep – it is impure (najis) and unlawful …

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  • Ruling 2643

    Some parts of those animals that are lawful to eat must not be eaten. These things are fourteen in number: blood; droppings; penis; vagina; uterus; glands; testicles; pituitary gland; spinal cord; the two nerves that are on either …

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  • Ruling 2644

    It is unlawful to drink the urine of animals whose meat is unlawful to eat. The same applies to the urine of animals whose meat is lawful to eat, even that of camels, based on obligatory precaution. However, …

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  • Ruling 2645

    It is unlawful to eat mud. The same applies to soil and sand, based on obligatory precaution. If one is compelled to, there is no problem in eating Daghistani or Armenian mud, or other mud than these, for …

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  • Ruling 2646

    It is not unlawful to swallow nasal mucus or phlegm that has gathered in the mouth. Similarly, there is no problem in swallowing food particles that become dislodged from between the teeth when using a toothpick.

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  • Ruling 2647

    It is unlawful to eat or drink anything that would cause death or inflict significant harm to a person.

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  • Ruling 2648

    It is disapproved to eat the meat of a horse, mule, or donkey. If someone has sexual intercourse with these animals, their meat becomes unlawful. Similarly, their milk and offspring after intercourse with them become unlawful to consume, …

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  • Ruling 2649

    If a kid [i.e. a baby goat] suckles milk from a pig to the extent that its flesh and bones are strengthened by the milk, the kid and its offspring become unlawful to eat and their milk becomes …

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  • Ruling 2650

    Drinking wine [and other alcoholic beverages] is unlawful. In some traditions, it is considered to be one of the gravest sins. It has been reported from Imam al-Ṣādiq (ʿA) that he said: ‘Wine is the root of evil …

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