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Ruling 1551

Eight things invalidate a fast:

  1. eating and drinking;
  2. sexual intercourse;
  3. masturbation, meaning that a man – either with himself or by means of something – does something other than having sexual intercourse that results in ejaculation. How this applies to a woman was explained in Ruling 345;
  4. based on obligatory precaution, ascribing false things to Allah, Prophet Muḥammad (Ṣ), and the successors of Prophet Muḥammad (Ṣ) [i.e. the Twelve Imams (ʿA)];

  5. causing thick dust to reach the throat, based on obligatory precaution;

  6. remaining in a state of ritual impurity (janābah), menstruation (ḥayḍ), or lochia (nifās) until the time of ṣubḥ prayers;

  7. applying liquid enema;

  8. vomiting intentionally.

The laws (aḥkām) relating to these will be explained in the following rulings (masāʾil).