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Transliteration

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Arabic terms which do not have standard spellings in English have been transliterated according to the system set out on this page.

ء  |  a, i, or u (initial form)  |  ل  |  l
ء  |  ʾ (medial or final form)  |  م  |  m
ا  |  a  |  ن   |   n
ب   |  b  |   ه  |   h
ت   |  t  |   و  |   w
ث   |  th  |  ي  |   y
ج  |  j  |  ة  |  h (without iḍāfah)
ح  |  ḥ  |  ة  |  t (with iḍāfah)
خ  |  kh  | ~  |  ~
د   |  d  |  الــ  |   al-*
ذ   |  dh  |  ـــَــ  |  a
ر   |  r  | ـــِــ  |  i
ز   |   z  |  ـــُــ  |  u
س   |   s   |   ــَـا / آ / ىٰ   |   ā
ش   |  sh   |  ــِــي   |  ī
ص  |  ṣ   |  ـــُــو   |   ū
ض  |  ḍ   |  آ   |  ʾā (medial form)
ط  |  ṭ  |  ــَــيْ   |  ay
ظ  |  ẓ  |  ــَــيّ  |  ayy
ع  |  ʿ  |  ــِــيّ  |  iyy (medial form)
غ  |  gh  |  ــِــيّ  |  ī (final form)
ف  |  f  |  ـــَــوْ  |  aw
ق  |  q  |  ـــَــوّ  |  aww
ك  |  k  |  ـــُــوّ  |  uww

*This does not apply, however, to those Arabic parts of the text that in practice are meant to be articulated verbally. See the fourth convention mentioned in the Translator’s Preface.