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1. Following a Jurist (Taqlīd)

In the name of Allah, the All-Beneficent, the Ever-Merciful. All praise is for Allah, Lord of the worlds. May there be blessings and peace upon the most noble of the Prophets and Messengers, Muḥammad, and his good and pure progeny. May there be a perpetual curse upon all of their enemies from now until the resurrection on the Day of Retribution.

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  • Ruling 1

    A Muslim’s belief in the fundamentals of religion (uṣūl al‐dīn) must be based on personal insight [i.e. grounded in reason], and he cannot follow anyone in the fundamentals of religion; i.e. he cannot accept the word of someone …

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  • Ruling 2

    Following a jurist in Islamic laws means acting in accordance with a mujtahid’s instructions. Only a mujtahid who is male, of the age of legal responsibility (bāligh), sane (ʿāqil), a Twelver (Ithnā ʿAsharī) Shia, of legitimate birth, living, …

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  • Ruling 3

    A mujtahid or the most learned can be identified in one of three ways:A person himself is certain [that someone is a mujtahid or the most learned]. For example, the person himself is a scholar and is able to …

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  • Ruling 4

    There are four ways to obtain a fatwa, i.e. a religious edict issued by a mujtahid:Hearing it from the mujtahid himself;Hearing it from two dutiful people who narrate the mujtahid’s fatwa;Hearing it from someone whose word one trusts;Reading …

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  • Ruling 5

    As long as a person is not certain that the mujtahid’s fatwa has changed, he can act according to what is written in his manual of Islamic rulings. Furthermore, if a person deems it probable that a fatwa …

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  • Ruling 6

    If the most learned mujtahid gives a fatwa on any matter, a follower (muqallid) of his cannot act upon another mujtahid’s fatwa in that matter.However, if he does not give a fatwa and says that based on precaution, …

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  • Ruling 7

    If the most learned mujtahid, before or after giving a fatwa on a matter, expresses precaution – for example, he says: an impure (najis) utensil that is washed once in kurr4 water becomes pure (ṭāhir), although based on …

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  • Ruling 8

    If a mujtahid whom a person is following [i.e. doing taqlīd of] dies, his authority after his death is the same as his authority when he was alive. Therefore, if he is more learned than a living mujtahid, …

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  • Ruling 9

    It is necessary for a mukallaf7 to learn those rulings that he considers he probably needs to learn in order to avoid sinning. ‘Sinning’ means not performing obligatory acts or performing unlawful acts.7 A mukallaf is someone who …

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  • Ruling 10

    If a person comes across a matter for which he does not know the Islamic ruling, it is necessary for him to act with caution or to follow a mujtahid according to the aforementioned conditions. However, in the …

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