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Ruling Transliteration

Arabic terms which do not have standard spellings in English have been transliterated according to the system set out on this page.

ء

a, i, or u (initial form)

ل

l

ء

ʾ (medial or final form)

م

m

ا

a

ن

n

ب

b

ه

h

ت

t

و

w

ث

th

ي

y

ج

j

ة

h (without iḍāfah)

ح

ة

t (with iḍāfah)

خ

kh

~

~

د

d

الــ

al- *

ذ

dh

ـــَــ

a

ر

r

ـــِــ

i

ز

z

ـــُــ

u

س

s

ــَـا / آ / ىٰ

ā

ش

sh

ـــِــي

ī

ص

ـــُــو

ū

ض

آ

ʾā (medial form)

ط

ــَــيْ

ay

ظ

ــَــيّ

ayy

ع

ʿ

ــِــيّ

iyy (medial form)

غ

gh

ــِــيّ

ī (final form)

ف

f

ـــَــوْ

aw

ق

q

ـــَــوّ

aww

ك

k

ـــُــوّ

uww

*This does not apply, however, to those Arabic parts of the text that in practice are meant to be articulated verbally. See the fourth convention mentioned in the Translator’s Preface.