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Ruling Transliteration

Arabic terms which do not have standard spellings in English have been transliterated according to the system set out on this page.

ء  |  a, i, or u (initial form)
ء  |  ʾ (medial or final form)
ا  |  a
ب   |  b
ت   |  t
ث   |  th
ج  |  j
ح  |  ḥ
خ  |  kh
د   |  d
ذ   |  dh
ر   |  r
ز   |   z
س   |   s
ش   |  sh
ص  |  ṣ
ض  |  ḍ
ط  |  ṭ
ظ  |  ẓ
ع  |  ʿ
غ  |  gh
ف  |  f
ق  |  q
ك  |  k
ل  |  l
م  |  m
ن  | n
ه  |  h
و  |  w
ي  |  y
ة  |  h (without iḍāfah)
ة  |  t (with iḍāfah)
~  |  ~
الــ  |   al-*
ـــَــ  |  a
ـــِــ  |  i
ـــُــ  |  u
ــَـا / آ / ىٰ   |  ā
ــِــي   |  ī
ـــُــو   |   ū
آ   |  ʾā (medial form)
ــَــيْ   |  ay
ــَــيّ  |  ayy
ــِــيّ  |  iyy (medial form)
ــِــيّ  |  ī (final form)
ـــَــوْ  |  aw
ـــَــوّ  |  aww
ـــُــوّ  |  uww

*This does not apply, however, to those Arabic parts of the text that in practice are meant to be articulated verbally. See the fourth convention mentioned in the Translator’s Preface.