The World Federation One Stop Fiqh

Ruling 2382

To conclude a marriage contract, whether that be for a permanent marriage or for a temporary one, a formula (ṣīghah) must be said; the mere consent of the man and the woman is not sufficient, nor is writing it, based on obligatory precaution (al‑iḥtiyāṭ al‑wājib). The formula is either said by the man and the woman themselves or they can appoint an agent (wakīl) to say it on their behalf.