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Ruling 1698

If fasting is harmful for a woman who is breastfeeding her child and who has little milk – whether she is the child’s mother or wet nurse, or someone who is breastfeeding the child without getting paid – or, if fasting is harmful for the child that she is breastfeeding, it is not obligatory on her to fast and she must give one mudd of food to a poor person for each missed fast and she must make up the fasts she did not keep. However, based on obligatory precaution, this rule only applies to the case where giving milk to the child is limited to this way. Therefore, if there is another way of giving milk to the child – for example, a number of women participate in breastfeeding the child, or the child is fed with the aid of a bottle – then affirming this rule is problematic (maḥall al‐ishkāl) [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, it is not permitted for such a woman to not fast].18

18 As mentioned in Ruling 6, the term ‘problematic’ (maḥall al‐ishkāl) amounts to saying that the ruling is based on obligatory precaution.