The World Federation One Stop Fiqh

Ruling 1628

If someone invalidates a fast of the month of Ramadan by eating, drinking, having sexual intercourse, masturbating, or remaining in the state of janābah until the time of ṣubḥ prayers, in the event that he did one of these things intentionally and voluntarily – and he was not compelled and forced to – then, as well as qaḍāʾ, kaffārah also becomes obligatory on him [i.e. he must keep a fast after Ramadan and also give recompense]. As for someone who invalidates a fast by means other than those mentioned, the recommended precaution is that in addition to qaḍāʾ, he should also give kaffārah.