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Ruling 1540

If someone does not know or forgets that it is the month of Ramadan and becomes aware of this before ẓuhr, in the event that he has done something that invalidates a fast, his fast is invalid (bāṭil) and [he must act according to two instructions:] (1) for the rest of that day, he must not do anything else that invalidates a fast until maghrib, and (2) after Ramadan, he must keep a qaḍāʾ fast for it. If someone becomes aware after ẓuhr that it is the month of Ramadan, then based on obligatory precaution he must fast with the intention of rajāʾ [i.e. with the intention of keeping the fast in the hope that it is desired by Allah]; and after Ramadan, he must also keep a qaḍāʾ fast for it. However, if he becomes aware before ẓuhr and he has not done anything that invalidates a fast, he must make the intention of fasting and his fast is valid.