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Ruling 1166

If after the time for prayers has expired one doubts whether or not he performed the prayer, or he supposes42 that he has not, it is not necessary for him to perform that prayer. However, if before the time for prayers has expired he doubts whether or not he performed it, he must perform it even if he supposes he has done so.

42 In Islamic law, the difference between a ‘doubt’ (shakk) and a ‘supposition’ (ẓann) is as follows: with a doubt, the person regards the two sides of a possibility as having an equal likelihood of being correct; for example, he does not know whether he has performed two rakʿahs or three and he deems both of these possibilities as having an equal likelihood of being correct. His uncertainty here is referred to as his doubt. With a supposition, however, the person regards one side of the possibility as having a greater likelihood of being correct than the other. In the example above, if the person deems it more likely that he has performed three rakʿahs rather than two, then this stronger possibility is his supposition.