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What is Qada’ and Qadr exactly?


What is Qada’ and Qadr exactly? I’m confused with Qada’ and Qadr with choices/decisions and efforts.
-This is an analogy that I thought about- Is Qada’ and Qadr either? :
1)For example if I want get from point A to point B there are different routes to get there, so no matter the route I take, it will always end up at point B.

2)Or is Qada’ and Qadr depending on the route I take, I arrive to different points.

-Scenarios I think about:
1)Another example is if for example I am having a test, I studied but I feel like I did not put my best effort due to mental burnout and physical drain causing a drop in my performance. Is the state of tiredness my own decision or is it my Qada’ and Qadr? Is it my fault or can I blame destiny?.

2) I’m confused between decision making and Qada’ and Qadr. Ex. I decide not to help a needy person. Can I consider it as destiny, because Allah (swt) already knows whatever decision I’m going to make? I just need a clarity on this.

2a) We are given the choice to make decisions, but whatever we do is in Allah’s plans and it’s already written in Luh mahfuz. However, what if I do something bad?


Assalamu Alaykum
Thank you for your question

The relationship between qada, qadar and our decisions is a topic that connects to Allah’s attributes. as human beings our knowledge is mostly shaped through time and experience but Allah s.w.t is not like that, he has divine knowledge, knowledge by presence.
qadar means the measurement of thing, in other words possibilities (that is why we pray on the night of qadr so Allah s.w.t makes the best possibility for us; but qada means what is definite).

We have freedom in both qada and qadar and Allah’s knowledge of my choice is not influencing my choice at all. I have free will. for example when I pray for a better year in the qadr night I am trying to change my qadar and when I decide to do something it is in the qada part.
according to science time is a dimension so when we look in the sky above and see the death of a star, it actually happened a very long time ago; but according to our religious thoughts Allah s.w.t is greater than anything (including time), so his knowledge and power is beyond time.

So it’s like two sides of the same coin, for us the future is unknown and yet to be decided but for Allah s.w.t it’s like what already happened or happening; He also knows every possible world and possibility (because He knows everything that can be known).

In your example you decided to study without having knowledge about what will happen (mental burnout and physical drain) but it happened and Allah s.w.t knew it from the moment you decided to study. because His knowledge is present and beyond time.

This is about divine knowledge, and for our actions it must be said our actions have 3 different types:
1. things that Allah s.w.t ordered us, wants us to do, knows about it and has satisfaction when its done (like our wajib deeds)
2. things that he did not order, but wants and knows and has satisfaction upon doing (like mustahab deeds)
3. things that Allah s.w.t didn’t order, didn’t want, and is not satisfied with but knows.

Naajiya Jaffery