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Breaking a Covenant



This year, on the 13th of March, I made a promise to Allah (SWT), that if he helps me with a thing, I will abstain from a certain bad thing for an entire year. Allah (SWT) helped me. I didn’t pronounce that covenant. I may have said some words by the tongue, but it was not a formal declaration by speech.

But my promise was well-thought out, meaning it was not done in a state of excitement. But still as I said, a formal declaration by tongue was not pronounced. Now if I break that covenant made in my heart, but not uttered by the tongue. Would it be:

1) Sinful?.

2) Do I have to give Kaffarah for it, as the covenant was not uttered formally by speech?



2650. While making a vow, a formula declaration has to be pronounced, though is not necessary that it should be in Arabic. If a person says: “When the patient recovers from his ailment, it will be obligatory upon me to pay $10 to a poor man, for the sake of Allah,” his vow will be in order.

Likewise, in the case of a covenant (‘Ahd) the formal declaration needs to be pronounced.

If the formal declaration was pronounced and the covenant broken, there would be kaffara for it, whereas in the case of breaking a covenant without having pronounced the formal declaration, there is no kaffara though it is disrespectful towards Allah.

Laila Habib